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Tel Hazor and its Interesting Archeology

Hazor was the largest and most influential city in Israel during Canaanite times. There were at least two major confrontations between the Israelites and the Canaanites of Hazor - at the times of Joshua and the Judges. Hazor is the largest tel in Israel and it has been extensively excavated. The ruins are well explained and help provide a background to the Biblical narrative. 

THE NATIONAL PARK:

Time: You will need a few hours to look around the site.

Directions: Enter “Tel Hazor” into Waze and click on “Tel Hazor National Park.” This will bring you to the lower parking by the park entrance and ticket office. After paying, you can either drive up to the upper parking lot, or leave your car in the lower parking lot and walk up to the ruins on this same road.

Admission: This is a site of the Israel Nature and Parks Authority. Summer hours are Sunday to Thursday and Saturday 8.00 am to 5.00 pm and Friday and holiday eves 8.00 am to 4.00 pm. In the winter the park closes 1 hour earlier. There is an admission charge. By the side of the ticket office is a path that goes up to a picnic area with a few picnic benches. Their telephone number is 04 693-7290. This is their website.

Public transport: There is a frequent bus service between Tzfat and Kiryat Shemona that stops at the Ayelet HaShachar Junction. From here it is a 11-minute/900 meter walk to the  National Park. 

The archeology at Hazor and the Bible

The ancient city of Hazor was located by the Hula Valley at the foot of the Galilee Mountains and dominated the Via Maris (“Way of the Sea), an important road that connected Egypt to Mesopotamia, Syria and Anatolia. Settlement first began here in the 27th century BCE, in the Early Bronze Age.

 

There are at least six periods of interest at Hazor because of their Biblical associations – the Canaanite period, the Israelite conquest of Canaan, the period of the Judges, the early monarchy under King Solomon, the period of Ahab, a king of the Northern Kingdom, and the conquest and destruction of Hazor by the Assyrian king Tiglatah-Pileser. This Assyrian attack led to the first of two exiles of the Jews of the Northern Kingdom.

 

Joshua’s conquest of Canaan occurred in four main phases. First was the capture of Jericho. He then captured the cities of Ai and Beit El, which effectively divided the country into two and prevented the northern Canaanite kingdoms uniting with the southern. The Israelites also made a pact with the Canaanites of Givon. Givon was not that far from Jerusalem, and overlooked important north-south and east-west highways. Realizing the seriousness of this pact, the five kings of the southern part of the country united to attack the Gibeonites. However, Joshua made a surprise attack on this alliance and defeated it. This saved him having to besiege and defeat each of these cities individually.

 

The armies of the northern part of the country now united and gathered under Jabin the king of Hazor. Again, Joshua made a surprise attack on this coalition, destroyed their numerous camps and chariots and burned down Hazor. As related in the book of Joshua - “Joshua returned at that time and captured Hazor and put its king to death with the sword because Hazor was formerly the leader of all those kingdoms. They killed every soul that was there - by the edge of the word were they utterly vanquished – not one soul remained. He burned Hazor with fire. And all the cities of these kings and all their kings Joshua captured and put to death .… Only Hazor did Joshua burn” (Joshua 11:10-11, 12, 13).

Hazor consisted of an upper city above the Hazor Stream, and there was also a lower city to the north on a large rectangular plateau. The Canaanite city was in the upper and lower cities and had about 15,000 inhabitants. The later Israelite city was not as large as this and was located only in the upper city.

 

Evidence has been found of a very significant conflagration in Hazor’s upper city, although not in the lower city. An Egyptian offering table was found in the rubble with hieroglyphics indicating that it was dedicated by a high priest of Ramesses II. This conflagration has therefore been dated to the middle of the 13th century, which is towards the end of the Late Bronze Age. The importance of  this is that the Israelite invasion of Canaan can now be dated to about 1250 BCE during the reign of Ramesses II, and many archeologists agree with this date for Joshua's conquest of Canaan.

 

However, there are a number of problems with this dating. Archeology at Hazor has demonstrated that following this conflagration there was no significant settlement in the city for about the next 100 to 200 years other than in the upper city where settlement was of a semi-nomadic nature with foundations being found only for tents and huts. This does not accord with the story of Hazor related in the Book of Judges. It also does not accord with the dating of the ruins of Jericho, nor with the Bible itself, from which one can date the Exodus to about 1400 BCE (I Kings 6:1). 

 

Of interest is another Israelite victory over the forces of Hazor. Later in the Book of Judges we read that the Israelites were under great pressure from the Canaanites who had reestablished their city: “And God gave them [the Israelites] into the hand of Jabin, the king of Canaan, who reigned in Hazor, and the chieftain of his army was Sisera… And the Children of Israel cried to God, for he had nine hundred iron chariots and he oppressed the Children of Israel mightily for twenty years (Judges 4:2-3). As Deborah had foretold, Sisera’s army was routed by her commander Barak at Mount Tabor following which: “And God subdued on that day Jabin the king of Canaan before the Children of Israel. And the hand of the Children of Israel prevailed constantly harder against Jabin the king of Canaan until they destroyed Jabin, king of Canaan” (Judges 4:24). Hence, the conflagration found by archeologists could well have been due to the army of Devorah and Barak. Otherwise, it is difficult to see how the Canaanites could have recovered so quickly following Joshua's conquest of Canaan when the archeological findings indicate that there was minimal settlement in the city following the conflagration.  However, this minimal settlement makes considerable sense if it was due to a conflagration caused by Deborah and Barak.

 

Make sure to visit the Solomonic gate and its fortifications from the 10th century BCE (#8). The Israelite kingdom was still united at the time of Solomon and he fortified the upper city with a casement wall and a large gate as he did at Gezer and Megiddo.

 

The Israelite kingdom split when Rehoboam, Solomon’s son, came to the throne, and Hazor then became part of the northern Israelite Kingdom. The Israelite king Ahab then constructed the water system to protect the spring. By this time, the city was double the size than at the time of King Solomon.

 

Part of the northern Israelite kingdom was exiled by the formidable army of the Assyrian king Tiglath-Pilesar in 732 BCE in what would be the first of two exiles: “In the days of Pekah, the king of Israel Tiglath-pileser, the king of Assyria came and took Ijon, Abel-beth-maacah, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor, Gilead, and Galilee, the entire land of Naphtali, and he exiled them to Assyria” (II Kings 15:29) There is no archeological evidence of this defeat, although the Assyrians constructed a large citadel. This continued to be used into the Persian period.

TOURING THE SITE:

 

  • Follow the route advised in the brochure, except consider going from point #1 directly to points #8 and # 9 (the cities of Solomon and Ahab and the staircase from the lower city to the upper city), since the stairway will provide you with a perspective on the relationship between the upper city and lower city. With this, you can now go to point #2 (the Solomonic Gate, the wall of which links up with #8) and then #3, the Palace of the Canaanite kings of Hazor.

Solomonic Gate.jpeg

Solomonic Gate (#2): The Book of Kings tells us: “And this is the matter of the tax levy which King Solomon raised; to build the Temple of the Lord, and his own house and the Milo [in Jerusalem], and the wall of Jerusalem and Hazor and Megiddo and Gezer” (I Kings 9:15). This was the entrance gate to the upper city at the time of King Solomon. It had three chambers on each side. Similar gates have been found at Megiddo and Gezer.

Canaanite palace.jpeg

The Canaanite palace (#3) functioned during the 14th and 13th centuries BCE. It likely had more of a ceremonial than administrative use. In the center of the complex was the throne room. It had a wooden floor and the upper part of the walls were covered with wood paneling. At the top of the staircase are two large column bases. A bamah or high place is situated outside the palace and to the right in this picture.

Solomonic Gate (#2: The Book of Kings tells us: “And this is the matter of the tax levy which King Solomon raised; to build the Temple of the Lord, and his own house and the Milo [in Jerusalem], and the wall of Jerusalem and Hazor and Megiddo and Gezer” (I Kings 9:15). This was the entrance gate to the upper city at the time of King Solomon. It had three chambers on each side. As one might have anticipated, similar gates to this have been found in Megiddo and Gezer.

water system.jpeg

Water system (#4): By the 9th century BCE, during the reign of King Ahab, Hazor was the largest city in Israel. To protect the spring from invaders, he built a water system inside the city consisting of a vertical shaft with rock-cut steps to a depth of 45 meters and at its base a 25-meter sloping tunnel to the water level. Similar systems have been found elsewhere in Israel, such as in Gezer and Megiddo.

Cultic structure.jpeg

Cultic structure (#5): This bamah or high place is from the 11th century Israelite period and was located at a lower level than the citadel. A figurine of a deity was also found here, suggesting that the bamah may have been used for pagan practices.

Israelite tower.jpeg

Israelite tower (#6): This was the last Israelite fortification built before the capture of the city by the Assyrians in 732 BCE: “In the days of Pekah King of Israel, Tiglath-pileser King of Assyria came and took Ijon, Abel-beth-maasach, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor, Gilead, Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and he carried them captive to Assyria” (II Kings 15:29). These people would become part of the Ten Lost Tribes.

Israelite home.jpeg

Private Israelite dwelling (#7): Four-room Israelite houses such as this have been found throughout Israel. They consisted of a courtyard at one end and three adjoining wings at right angles to the courtyard. The family would have slept in an upper floor, and household activities, including cooking, would have been in the courtyard. An olive press is seen in the courtyard just as it was found. This entire building was originally located above the Canaanite palace and was moved intact to allow for excavations of the palace.

Cultic structure (#5): This bamah or high place is from the Israelite period, or 11th century BCE, at a lower level than the citadel. A figurine of a deity was found here, suggesting that this may have been used for pagan practices

There is an Antiquities Museum at the entrance to Kibbutz Ayelet Hashahar containing findings from Hazor, but admission is only for groups and needs to be prearranged.

Israelite tower (#6). This was the last Israelite fortification built before the capture of the city by the Assyrians in 732 BCE. “In the days of Pekah King of Israel, Tiglath-pileser King of Assyria came and took Ijon, Abel-beth-maasach, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor, Gilead, Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and he carried them captive to Assyria” (II Kings 15:29).

Private Israelite dwelling #7. Israelite four-room houses such as this have been found throughout the country with a courtyard at one end and three adjoining wings. The family would have lived in an upper floor, and household activities, including cooking, would have taken place in the courtyard. There is an olive press in the courtyard just as it was found. This entire building was originally located above the Canaanite palace, and was moved intact to allow for excavations of the palace. a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

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